DON'T CLICK THIS LINK!! Also Don't Click this Link
Space Vids

You can choose your grade by how much you work.
All tests can be retaken and all work can be fixed or made up if the notebook system is used.
ALL "FIXED" AND LATE WORK WILL ONLY BE DOCKED 10%.
For inquiring minds: Cell Biology Site

3rd Quarter Assignment List 2013

Fourth Quarter Assignment List

Assignments are listed in reverse order with the newest on top.

Sexually Transmitted Disease


Answers to the Final:



5/25
See textbook page 319.
Virus Structure and Infection
Write the three sentences under the title.
Draw a virus and label its parts.
Draw part of a cell membrane and a few receptor surface proteins.


5/23 & 27
Active and Hidden Virus Pages 320 & 321
Write material under the title.
Draw and write a short version of the text. For example:
1. Virus attaches/ 2. Genetic material injected/ 3. Forced to make virus parts/ 4. Viruses assembled/ 5. Cell destroyed & viruses released
You should shorten the text for page 321.

Vaccines (Two column notes on the following)
Focus question:
How are antigens involved in how a vaccine works?





5/21 & 22
Section 2 / Bacteria
Textbook page 333
Question numbers 1 - 4 including all letters.

Bacteria Questions
#s 1-11 Answer in complete sentences.



5/17 & 20
Viruses: Textbook page 323
Questions numbers 1 - 4 including all letters

Related Material
Virus and Bacteria Videos


5/15 & 5/16
Earth History Test
Extra Credit was done after the test.

Extra Credit: (45 points possible)
Workbook:
Don’t do the task before question 1 on the worksheets for each section.
Start at question 1. Finish all numbered questions including diagrams and boxes of numbered items.
Earn 5 points by doing Section 8-1 starting on workbook page 134.
Earn 5 points by doing Section 8-2 starting on workbook page 137.
Earn 5 points by doing Section 8-3 starting on workbook page 141
Earn 5 points by doing Section 8-4 starting on workbook page 145.
Earn 5 points by doing Section 8-5 starting on workbook page 149.
Textbook:
Earn 5 points by doing all the questions on textbook page 271.
Earn 5 points by doing all the questions on textbook page 277.
Earn 5 points by doing all questions 1-4 on textbook page 282.
Earn 5 points by doing all questions on textbook page 285.
If you didn’t do these in your Science Notebook, do it this time;
Textbook page 297 questions 1-5, do all letters.


Extra information:
Climates and Geologic Events
Past Environments
Extinction- Desertification

Natural Selection-Geneticist


5/13 & 14
Earth History Test Concepts.
See below.
Study for tests.
5/7 & 10
Fixing and grading Earth History information starting on page 57 the SNB.

Started the six items on the following:
Earth History Test Concepts (Use your next blank page in your SNB or page 75.)
You are covering the material and making a study guide.
Copy the question and answer it or answer in complete sentences.
Test Question 4/ Textbook p. 227. Read about the Galapagos finches and the section on adaptation.
1. Why are the beaks different?
2. What are the beaks adapted to do?
Test Question 5/ Textbook p. 229.
Read the first paragraph.
3. According to Darwin, through what mechanism does evolution occur?
4. Describe how this mechanism works.
Test Question 3/ Textbook p. 230. Read the first paragraph.
5. What did Darwin think limited resources in an area would lead to?
6. How does the answer to number 5 lead to natural selection?
Test Question 1/ Textbook p. 231. Read about genes and natural selection.
7. How does variations allow for natural selections.
8. What do variations result from?
Test Question 8/ Textbook p. 234. Read “Forms of Evidence”
9. What four types of evidence are combined to determine evolutionary relationships among species?
10. Give an example of comparative anatomy.
Test Question 16/ Textbook p. 238. Look at the picture and read the first paragraph of both p. 238 & p. 239.
11. What evidence do fossils provide?
12. What picture can be built based on the fossils of an area.
Test Question 17/ Textbook p. 239. Look at the picture and read the first paragraph of both p. 238 & p. 239.
13. What do the fossils found in an area tell.
14. What can be inferred from fish fossils found in a desert?
Test Question 2/ Textbook p. 243. Read page 243.
15. How could a new species form?
16. Why can isolation result in the formation of a new species?
Test Question 6 & 7/ Textbook p. 245. Read the first paragraph and look at figure 14.
Remember: branching tree diagrams show hypothetical evolutionary relationships.
17. What evidence has shown that lesser and greater panda are not closely related?
18. Why is the lessor panda on the same branch as the raccoon and the greater panda on the same branch as the bear?
19. Are giant pandas more closely related to lesser pandas or to bears?
20. What is shown by the distance between two species on a branching three diagram?
Test Question 10/ Textbook p. 245. Read the “Extinction and the Environment” section.
21. What is extinction cause by?
22. What happens if a species can’t adapt to an environmental change?
Test Question 9 / Textbook p. 246. Read the “Climate Change” section.
23. Why does climate change cause extinction?
24.If a species of grass is adapted to a wet climate and the climate becomes drier, what might happen to that species?
Test Question 9 / Textbook p. 246. Read the “Climate Change” section.

Each of the following address a test question. (Students need to study these items.)
H1. According to evolution, a mutation could cause a new species.
H2. If a species gets separated into two groups, a new species may form if one adapts to different conditions.
H3. Darwin reasoned that limited resource would lead to competition.
H4. Darwin observed that finch beaks were adapted to the type of food they ate.
H5. Darwin's mechanism for evolution is natural selection.
H6. Organism that are the most similar are put close together.
H7. Organism that are closer together have shared a common ancestor more recently.
H8. Evolutionary relationships are determined from body structures, early development, and DNA sequences.
H9. If a wet climate dries out, a species of grass adapted to the wet will most likely become extinct.
H10. The extinction of a species occurs when it can't adapt to environmental changes.
11. Changing environments and geologic events have altered life on Earth.
12. Mass extinctions are evidence that catastrophic events have shaped the Earth.
13. Radioactive dating allows geologist to determine the absolute age of a rock sample
14. According to evolutionary theory, life on Earth began more than 3 billion years ago.
15. Geologists believe the Earth is 4.6 billion years old.
16. Past environments and the history of life are inferred from Fossils.
17. Fish fossils in a desert indicate the desert was once under water.
18. The divisions of the geologic time scale were determined by changes in life forms.
19 Processes occurring today are similar to those that occurred in the past.
20. Movements of the Earth’s plates have changed the locations of the continents.
21 & 22. When an intrusion cuts across other rocks, the intrusion is younger than the rocks it cuts.
E is younger than B, C, & D.
0GeoMapJim2Letters.png

Classification Trees (Like test questions 6 & 7)
Organisms with the most shared features are plased closest to each other on the tree.
Applying the theory of evolution to the tree would be to say that, organisms that are closer together have shared a common ancestor more recently.
Note: fossils of the common ancestors have not been found.
CharacteristicsTree.png

Which share more characteristics?
a. Fish and amphibians
b. Birds and reptiles
Which share more characteristics?
a. Birds and amphibians
b. Birds and mollusks
c. Birds and spiders
d. Birds and reptiles

Read and Answer Test Prep.
Evolution Test Review
Use SNB pages 67 and 68.
This assignment is to be done in two equal sized columns. To earn 45%, copy the question and write the answer after it in the left column. The sentences before each question will contain the answer to the question. To earn the remaining 55%, combine the question with the answer to make a statement. Write this statement in the right column. Your statements should be similar to the statements in assignment #44, but the order is different.

A gene for a trait could mutate producing a new allele. This mutated allele could cause a new trait to appear and increase the genetic variation of the species. The idea of macro-evolution is that many of these mutations could give rise to a new species.
1. What could cause an new species to evolve?

Isolation occurs when a species is separated into two groups by water, mountain ranges, or canyons. The environmental conditions of two separated groups may be different. These two groups may become different species when they adapt in different ways to these different conditions.
2. What may two isolated groups adapting to diverse environmental conditions become?

Since food and resources are limited, the members of a species must compete with each other to survive. Due to genetic variations in a species, some members may out compete others. The organisms better adapted to their environment by certain traits could out compete others and be more likely to survive.
3. What could limited resources in an area lead to?

The beaks of finches on the Galapagos Islands differed from one island to the next. The size and shape of finch beaks were adapted to the food eaten. Insect-eating finches had needle-like beaks, while seed-eating finches had strong, wide beaks. An adaption is a trait that helps an organism survive and reproduce in its environment.
4. What were the beaks of the Galapagos finches adapted to?

Darwin proposed that evolution occurs through a mechanism called natural selection. He reasoned that factors in nature could select traits like people do when selectively breeding animals. In natural selection, individuals that are better adapted to their environment are more likely to survive and produce.
5. What was Darwin's mechanism for causing evolution?

Limb bones of vertebrates are similar. Embryos of vertebrates are kind of similar. Also similarities in DNA sequences might indicate a common ancestor. Evolutionary relations ships are bases on similarities in body structures, early development, and DNA sequences.
6. What evidence is used to determine evolutionary relationships?

A species of grass is adapted to a wet climate. If the environment the grass lives in becomes much dryer the grass will die. When all the grass of this species is dead, the grass has become extinct.
7. What will most likely happen to swamp grass if the swamp drys out?

Genetic variations in a species may allow the species to adapt. If the environment or predators where a species lives changes some variations may help individuals survive. Species may not be able to adapt if the change is too much. When a species can't adapt to an environmental change, it will become extinct.
8. When does the extinction of a species occur?

A classification tree has types of organisms at the end of its branches. The branches, trunk, and stump of the tree represent probable common ancestors based on the theory of evolution. Organisms on branches close together are theorized to have a closer relationship or common ancestor.
9. What indicates that two organism are more closely related on a classification tree?



5/3 & 5/6
Radioactive Dating
1. Tell what happens during radioactive decay.
2. Tell what goes down and what goes up over time in a rock containing radioactive elements.
3. Explain the half-life of a radioactive element.
4. Explain the ratio used to determine the age of a rock.
5. The process used to determine the absolute age of a rock is …..
6. Why have scientist used moon rocks and meteorites to estimate the age of the Earth?
7. How old do scientist say the Earth is?
8. Draw a picture explaining Radioactive Dating.
UraniumLeadHalflifeRadioactiveDecayRocks.PNG

Geologic Time Scale
Do questions 1 through 5 plus letters on textbook page 297.
Then:
  • Use pictures and captions to tell about the geologic time scale.
  • Include details about the Precambrian, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic Era.
  • Include dominant life forms.
  • Present the theories on how the Paleozoic and Mesozoic Eras ended.

5/1 & 5/2
Pangaea Assignment

4/29
Presented: https://lifescitpjhs.wikispaces.com/Geologic+Cross-sections
Geologic Cross Sections Simple
Part 3: Determining Relative Age (18 minutes)
Part 4: Geologic Cross-Sections (15 minutes)
Part 5: Index Fossils (10 minutes)
Part 6: Clues to Rock Layers (30 minutes)
Answer and do the following.
Determining Relative Age (Textbook pages 274 & 275)
1. Explain what an intrusion is.
2. Explain how an intrusion forms,
3. Tell how an intrusion's age relates to the age of the rocks it passes through.
4. Explain what a fault is.
5. Explain how a fault forms.
6. Tell how the age of a fault relates to the rock it cuts through.
7. Explain cross-cutting relationships.
8. Explain how an unconformity forms.
9. Explain why there are gaps in the geologic record.
Draw the following geologic cross-sections.
Geologic Cross Sections
Which picture shows erosion between layers A &B? This is an unconformity.
0GeoMapJim1Letters.png
0GeoMapJim1Letters.png

0GeoMapJim2Letters.png
0GeoMapJim2Letters.png

Find the intrusion and fault in the picture above.
1. Tell which happened first and why.
Find the unconformity between A and B.
Also find the fault and intrusion.
2. Tell which of the three happened first and why. (oldest)
3. Tell which of the three happened second and why.
4. Tell which happened last and why. (youngest)
Index Fossils
1. Explain how index fossils help geologist match rock layer to determine if they are the same age.
2. Why does an index fossil need to be widely distributed and must have only existed for a brief period of time.
3. Tell why ammonite fossils make good index fossils.
4. Quickly sketch an outline of the second index fossil in figure 8 that is not an ammonite.
IndexFossil1.jpg

Clues to Rock Layers (Textbook page 278)
Sketch “Site 1” and “Site 2”
Do items 1 through 8 on textbook page 278
IndexfossilsSite1nSite2.jpg
1. What "fossil clues" in layers A and B indicate the kind of environment that existed when these rocks
were formed? How did the environment change?
2. Which layer is the oldest? How do you know?
3. Which of the layers formed most recently? How do you know?
4. Why are there no fossils in layers C and E?
5. What kind of fossils are found in layer F?
6. Which layer at Site 1 might have formed at the same time as layer W as site 2?
7. What clues show an unconformity or gap in the horizontal rock layers? Which rock layers are
missing? What might have happened to these rock layers?
8. Which is older, intrusion V or layer Y? How do you know?

4/18 & 20
Classroom presentation by guest speaker Ranger Lorna.
Geology of the Area


4/16 & 17
Start Earth History booklet. Use SNB pages 57 to 70
Day one:
Earth History Booklet (Part 1) Use lots of sketches and colors. Have fun.
1. Introduce the concept of Geology. (4 min/ p. 268)
2. (p. 269/ 4 min)
a. Explain uniformitarianism.
b. Tell how figure 1 shows uniformitarianism. p. 269
3. Describe and explain the formation of the three rock types classified by geologist.
(p. 269/ 9 minutes)
4. Draw the rock cycle. (p. 271/ 15 min)
5. a) volcanic activity, b) erosion, c) deposition, d) heat & pressure, and e) melting
Explain the rock cycle's arrows. Tell how these five processes transform rock types into another rock types.
(p. 270/ 20 min)
Ages of Rocks (Part 2) Earth History Booklet
1. Explain relative age and absolute age. (p. 272/ 6 min)
2. Explain and give an example of the law of superposition. (p. 273/ 6 min)
3. Sketch Fig. 4, on p 273, showing the law of superposition, relative age, and absolute age.
4. Explain what in the picture shows relative age, absolute age, and superposition in figure 4.
(p. 273/ 15 min)
a. Tell what the rock layers show in the picture.
b. Tell what the numbers indicate in the picture.
c. Tell the concept that the arrow shows in the picture.
GrandCanyonLayers.JPGg


Darwin's Idea
Intrusions, Faults, and Unconformities
Relative vs. Absolute Ages

Darwin
http://www.brainpop.com/science/famousscientists/charlesdarwin/
Genetics
http://www.brainpop.com/health/geneticsgrowthanddevelopment/genetics/
Mutation
http://www.brainpop.com/health/geneticsgrowthanddevelopment/geneticmutations/
Heredity
http://www.brainpop.com/health/geneticsgrowthanddevelopment/heredity/




4/15
5th Chapter Test
4/12
Measure Finch Beak Activity/ Finish Alien Babies/Track Field Day

4/11
5th Chapter Test

4/4 & 8 (First half of the review) (4/9 & 10 Second half of the review)
5th Chapter Review
Cornell style notes / Use SNB page 53 - 55
1. DNA is located in the chromosomes of each cell.
2. Genes are passed from parents to offspring during sexual reproduction, following Mendel’s theory of inheritance
3. Any inherited trait will be determined by one or more genes.
4. Meiosis produces four daughter cells.
5. The sex cells have half the chromosomes as body cells.
6. When sex cells combine (fertilization), each sex cell contributes half the normal number of chromosomes.
7. Traits refers to the physical characteristics studied in genetics.
8. Two genes on the same chromosome can help determine a phenotype like eye color or wing shape.
9. Sexual reproduction results in offspring that are genetically different than their parents.
10. Asexual reproduction results in offspring that are genetically identical to their parents.
11. Different forms of a gene are called alleles.
12. In hybrids, the dominant alleles are responsible for the phenotype of the trait.
13. The notation "TT" means "two dominant alleles" to a geneticists.
14. A mutation is any change in a gene or chromosome.
15. A Punnett square shows the probability of outcomes in a genetic cross.
16-19
Phenotype - is what trait is visible / the physical appearance / brown or blue eyes
Genotype – is the allele combination / TT , Tt, or tt
Homozygous = alleles are the same / Heterozygous = alleles are different
TT = homozygous dominant, Tt = heterzygous, or tt = homozygous recessive
Parent 1 = Gg and Parent 2 = gg.
Show the outcomes of this cross in a Punnett square.
G = Green hair g = brown hair
16. Parent 1’s phenotype is ………
17. Parent 2’s genotype is………(choose)
a) hybrid, b) heterozygous,
c) homozygous dominant, d) homozygous recessive
18. What is the probability that the cross will produce homozygous offspring?
19. What is the probability that the cross will produce offspring with green hair?
P = purple violets p = white violet
Show the outcomes of this cross in a Punnett square.
Cross a purebred purple violet with a purebred white violet.
20. Crossing a purebred purple violet with a purebred white violet should result in
a) three quarters purple and one quarter white violets
b) all white violets
c) all purple violets
d) half purple and half white violets
(only write the correct answer)

Write & Draw the following:
Replicate figure 18 and key- idea on textbook page 180. Use SNB page 51.
Finish these:
Replicate figure 13 on textbook page 172.
Use SNB pages 48 & 49.
Replicate figure 15 on textbook page 174.
Use SNB page 50.
Title, sentences, text boxes, and labels should be included for each figure.
Remember to write the sentences below the title of the figure.

Alien Baby activity for classes that don't spend 25% of the time waiting for quiet.



4/2 & 4/3
Chromosome Inheritance (Cornell style notes / SNB page 46-48)
1. Remember: An organism’s traits come from pairs of genes and different forms of a gene are called alleles.
Sutton observed that:
2. The body cells of grasshoppers had 24 chromosomes, but their sex cells only had half as many chromosomes (12 chromosomes).
3. When a sperm and egg joined during fertilization, the grasshopper egg that formed had 24 chromosomes. 12 + 12 = 24
4. Grasshopper offspring have the same number of chromosomes as their parents because half of them come from each parent during sexual reproduction.
5. From Mendel’s work, Sutton knew that one allele in a pair comes from the female parent and the other allele comes from the male parent.
6. Sutton realized that paired alleles were carried on paired chromosomes.
7. Chromosome theory of inheritance:
– genes are carried from parents to their offspring on chromosomes
– one chromosome in each pair comes from each parent
8. Meiosis is the process that reduces the chromosome number by half to form sex cells.
9. During meiosis, the chromosome pairs separate and are distributed to two different cells reducing their number by half.
10. Sexual reproduction produces offspring that inherit half their genes/chromosomes from each parent; making them genetically different from either parent.
11. Chromosomes are made up of many genes joined together like beads on a string.
12. Plant and animal cells contain many thousands of gene pairs on many chromosome pairs.

Draw the following:
Title, sentences, text boxes, and labels should be included for each figure.
Replicate figure 13 on textbook page 172.
Use SNB pages 48 & 49.
Replicate figure 15 on textbook page 174.
Use SNB page 50.
Replicate figure 18 and key- idea on textbook page 180. Use SNB page 51.


3/29 & 4/1

Genetic Terms (Cornell style notes SNB 43)

1. Dominant - Allele represented by the upper case letter. Only one dominant allele is needed to produce the trait.
2. Recessive - Allele represented by a lower case letter. Two recessive alleles are needed to produce the trait.
3. Phenotype - what it looks like - physical appearance - visible traits
4. Genotype - The alleles it has - allele combinations (letters)
5. Homozygous - has the same alleles. (TT or tt)
6. Heterozygous - has different alleles. (Tt)
7. (Copy and do the following.)
GeneticTermsMendelExp.PNG
GeneticTermsMendelExp.PNG




Draw the following Punnett squares only. (Don't draw the pigs or people.)
Write the letters representing the the alleles of the parents above and beside the boxes.
The alleles of the male parent are usually put above the boxes and the female's alleles are put beside the boxes.
Fill in the allele combinations of the offspring.
8.
G_Pig.JPG
G_Pig.JPG

What is the dominant phenotype?
What is the recessive phenotype?
What are the genotypes of the parents?
Are the parents homozygous or heterozygous?
Are the offspring homozygous or heterozygous?

Make a Punnett square for the following cross.
9
Punnett_Gpig_PurHy.jpg
Punnett_Gpig_PurHy.jpg

What is the genotype of the male and female G-pig?
What is the probablility of homozygous offspring?
What is the probablility of heterozygous offspring?

Make a Punnett square of the following cross
10.
PunnettXY.JPG
PunnettXY.JPG

Is the father homozygous or heterozygous?
Is the mother homozygous or heterozygous?
What chromosome can the mother give to the children?
What chromosomes can the father give to the children?
Which parent's allele determines if the child is a boy or girl, the father or mother?
What is the probability of having a boy or girl?

GeneticTerms3rdPDF.pdf
GeneticTerms3rdPDF.pdf
GeneticTerms3rdPDF.pdf

GeneticTerms3rd.ppt
GeneticTerms3rd.ppt
GeneticTerms3rd.ppt


3/27 & 28

‍Genes and Alleles (Cornell Style use SNB pages 41 & 42)

1. DNA is a long, thin molecule that looks like a twisted ladder with rungs made of base pairs. GC and AT (GCAT)
2. Chromosomes are pieces of DNA in the nuclei of each cell. Humans have 23 pair.
3. Genes are a sequence of bases in a chromosome that code for a trait.
(There are an average of 65 million bases per chromosome and an average of 1000 genes per chromosome.)
4. Chromosome pairs – one comes from each parent to make up the pair.
5. Sexual reproduction results in offspring that are genetically different from their parents.
6. Asexual reproduction results in offspring that are genetically the same as their parents.
7. Alleles are different forms of a gene.
8. Organisms get one allele from each of their parents.
9. An organism's alleles can be the same or different.
10. In purebreds, alleles are the same.
11. In hybrids, alleles are different and the dominant allele is responsible for the trait.
10. Punnett Squares are used to determine the probability of alleles in offspring.
11. Dominant Alleles – capital letters / Recessive Alleles – lower case letters
12. See textbook page 164 for how to draw a Punnett Square.

The DNA Code (figure 16)
Replicate the figure on textbook pages 176 &177
Use SNB page 40.
Write the sentences below the title of the figure. You can answer the question in a complete sentence.
Don’t use a pronoun as the answers subject.
GenesNAlleles2ndPDF.pdf
GenesNAlleles2ndPDF.pdf
GenesNAlleles2ndPDF.pdf

GenesNAlleles2nd.ppt
GenesNAlleles2nd.ppt
GenesNAlleles2nd.ppt


Bonus Practice:
http://lifescitpjhs.wikispaces.com/Ogre+Traits

OrangeBlackCat.jpg
OrangeBlackCat.jpg

Fun: Cat Coat Genetics
http://lifescitpjhs.wikispaces.com/Coat+Colors

3/25 & 26
Part 2
Mendel's Work (Use SNB pages 37 & 38. Write as Cornell notes)
1. Heredity is the passing of physical characteristics from parents to offspring.
2. Traits are physical characteristics that can be passed from parents to offspring.
3. Genetics is the study of heredity.
4. Mendel is considered the father of genetics.
5. A new organism begins to form when male and female sex cells join in the process called fertilization.
6. A purebred organism is the offspring of many generations that have the same trait.
7. Mendel’s Experiment:P Generation – In the Parent Generation, a tall purebred was cross with a short purebred.Mendel’s Experiment:
8. 1st Generation – All of the offspring were tall. None of the offspring were short even though one parent was short.Mendel’s Experiment:
9. 2nd Generation – Offspring occurred in the ratio of three tall plants to one short plant.
10. The short trait of one parent of the parent generation did not occur in the 1st generation, but reappeared in the 2nd generation.
11. The factors that determine traits are called genes.
12. P Generation:One parent had two tall genes.The other parent had two short genes.
13. F1 Generation:All offspring have one tall and one short gene.
14. F2 Generation: Three possibilities:Can get a tall gene from both parents.Can get a tall from one parent and a short form the other.Can get a short gene from each parent.
15 Summary:
  • Traits are controlled by two genes.
  • One gene comes from the female parent and the other comes from the male parent.
  • One gene of a pair can hide or dominate the trait of another gene.
  • Offspring receiving two hidden or recessive gene will have the hidden trait

MendelsWorkPDF.pdf
MendelsWorkPDF.pdf
MendelsWorkPDF.pdf

MendelsWork.ppt
MendelsWork.ppt
MendelsWork.ppt



Part 3
Crossing Plants
Replicate Figure 1 on textbook page 155.
Use the top half of SNB page 36.
Cross Results
Replicate Figure 2 on textbook page 156.
Use the bottom half of SNB page 36.
(FYI: Replicate -A close or exact copy; a replica.)

Part 1 (Bell Work)
SNB page 35/ Write the title and follow the directions.

WhoDaddy.jpg
WhoDaddy.jpg

TabbyKittens.jpg
TabbyKittens.jpg

CrossingPeaPlants.jpg
CrossingPeaPlants.jpg

TallShortPlants.gif
TallShortPlants.gif

MendelExperiment.jpg
MendelExperiment.jpg


3/21 & 22
Test on Chapter 4

From Third Quarter
3/19 & 20

4th Chapter Test Review (Cornell Style/ SNB pages 32 to 35)
0. Reactants are infront of arrows. Products are after arrows.
Photosynthesis: 6CO2 + H2O à C6H12O6 + 6O2
1. In a leaf, photosynthesis produces sugar & Oxygen.
2. Products are after arrows.
3. Plant cells use sunlight to make food = photosynthesis
4. Autotrophs make food, heterotrophs can’t
Order the terms to show the flow of energy.
Zebra, Sunlight, Grass, Lion
Heterotroph, Autotroph, Sunlight
5. Photosynthesis makes food for plants. Benefit
6. A chloroplast main purpose is to use sunlight to make food.
7. Photosynthesis creates food in plants that animals can eat. Benefit
Respiration: C6H12O6 + 6O2 à6CO2 + H2O
8. Respiration produce water and Carbon dioxide.
Respiration doesn't produce energy, it converts energy in sugar in to a form the cell can use.
9. Mitochondria convert energy in sugar so the cell can use it.
10. Photosynthesis and Respiration have reversed equations.
11. The main purpose of cell division is to increase the number of cells.
12. DNA is replicated before a cell starts to divide because each daughter cell gets an identical copy.
13. G-Cat/ The four nitrogen bases are thymine, adenine, cytosine, & guanine.
14. Rungs of the DNA ladder are made of: G-C and A -T pairs only. (G-C and A-T only)
Applying this concept:
Given that one side of the ladder is: CCGGTTAA
What is the other side of the ladder: GGCCAATT
15. Genetic material is copied during DNA replication.
16. Anaphase is when chromosomes separate at their centromeres during mitosis.
17. A pair of nitrogen bases makes up each rung of the DNA ladder.
18. A nucleus dividing best describes mitosis.
19. Differentiation is when an undifferentiated cell becomes a root, leaf, or transport cell


Cell Test Study Guide Chapter 3(Consider them and study them as if they were the test's answers.)
1. All living things are made of cells.
2. In all organisms, cells function very similarly.
3. Plant cell have cell walls, chloroplasts, and chlorophyll, animal cells don’t.
Both animal and plant cells contain mitochondria.
4. DNA directs all the activities of the cell.
5. In plants and animal, most of the cell’s genetic material is found in the nucleus.
6. Plant cells look boxlike due to their cell walls.
7. The nucleus is often the most observable organelle in cells.
8. Cheek cells of animals look roundish in shape.
9. Levels of organization:
--Cells--
--Tissues--
--Organs--
--Organ Systems--
-Bone cells--
Many similar bone cells--
A bone--
The skeleton--
(Level on top/Example on bottom)
10. Tissues are made of similar cells such as the cells in bone.
11. A brain is composed of different tissues making it an organ.
12. Chloroplasts, mitochondria, and nuclei are all examples of organelles.
13. Most cells are similar in structure and function. Tree, turtle, and human cells all contain a nucleus.
14. All cells have DNA.
15. DNA and RNA are made of nucleic acid.
16. Nucleic acids, lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates all contain hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon.(hoc)
17. Organelles that converts sugar into energy the cell can use are called mitochondria.
18. Chloroplasts use energy from sunlight to produce sugars for food.
19. Active transport requires energy to get molecules across a cells membrane.
20. The diffusion of molecules across a membrane is called osmosis.
X19. Passive transport allows water to enter a cell without requiring energy.
X20. Diffusion is the movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.
(The last two items will help eliminate incorrect choices.)